|The streets of Khmelnytsky|
At the same time, the streets were paved with cobble stones and the first sidewalks appeared than as well. So, at the beginning of the XX century (1910) Proskuriv was described as the town with already 36 thousand inhabitants, 38 – streets and bystreets, half of them were paved with cobble stones and had pavements, and unfortunately there were only six of them with green plantings.
March 15, 1941, the town was granted status of provincial center, and in 1954 it was renamed to Khmelnytksyi. The second half of 19th century the town experienced an active territorial growth: the population reached 250 thousand people because of joining of suburban villages of (Grechany, Zarichchya, Lezneve, Ruzhychna, Knyzhkivtsi) and a construction of new residential areas such as South-western area, Ozerna and others. Every next year new streets appeared in the town. And nowadays there are recorded all together 580 names of streets, lanes and public squares. It is worth telling about some of the oldest ones:
is one of the oldest arterial roads of the provincial centre which runs from the banks of the Pivdennyi Bug (South God) river to the south outlying district (residential area Ruzhichna). At that, this very street could be twice referred in the list of Khmelnytskyi record: firstly it has been the longest street (7km) at that time, and secondly it is the oldest street as it dates back to the time of the first settlement of Ploskyriv located at the upland among the South river swamps. The roads from Kamyanets to Volyn’ crossed the river Bug in Ploskyriv. One part of Kamyanetska Street became settlement’s Street, the dam and the bridge was built at the place of crossing the river. On the first city map of 1800 the Kamyanetska Street was neatly defined as the “Mail road to Kamyanets”. From 1925 till 1991 during the Soviet times the street wasn’t able to escape the waves of changes, once it had the name of Soviet commander M Frunze. In 1991 the previous historic name of the street has been restored. As far back as fifty years Kamyanetska Street looked entirely different: one and two-storey houses standing close to each other on both sides of the street from the South Bug river to the rail road. At present time only small part of those houses built by merchant in the period from the end of 19th till the beginning of 20th century could survive. In 1960th Kamyanetska Street (Frunze street at that time) has been completely rebuilt: one-storey houses were replaced by five-storey building and cobble stone pavement with asphalt, even the street lamps were installed. Small square at the intersection with Gagarin Street where Bogdan Khmelnytskyi monument and regional Philharmonic Society are of great interest. If we refer back to the second half of 19th century this place was neglected area with such name as “Kinna ploshcha” (Horse square). Horses, one-horse carts, carriages, harness etc. were sold here on the market-days. Little by little this place was built over with single-storey houses, they were demolished in 1960th and spacious structure for Petrovskyi Theater was built. In 1982 the theatre moved to the new building and the old one was occupied by Philharmonic Society. This building is proud of having the well-known State dance and song ensemble “Kozaky Podillya” (former Podolyanka) and the organ music concert hall.
Central street of the city runs from intersection of Kamyanetska-Soborna-Podilska streets to the railway station. It also exists from the beginning of the settlement as the part of a road to Letychiv. It has been mentioned above that Kamyanetska Street was considered to be the main street of the town till the first half of the 19th century. In 1822 almost all wooden houses in Proskuriv were destroyed through the devastated fire. It requested a new plan of the city which was scheduled by the land surveyor V.Rudlytskyi and made by the architect Gesler. Based on this plan the main streets of the town have been laid which exist till present day. But the main traffic arteries remained the same mail routes towards Kamyanets and Letychiv. The city plan had been approved by Alexander I, though no penny was donated from Tsar’s Treasury. Anyway, the approval of plan caused that mail route to Letychiv got his name as Alexandrivska. Since second half of 19th century this street has been built up extensively and became the main street of Proskuriv. 1921 Oleksandrivska Sreet was renamed to October 25 Street in honor of October revolution of 1917. In 1985 it was Lenin Street, and in 1991, after this resolution had been revoked, it received its previous name of Proskurivska Street. Nowadays there are a lot of old houses remained, which have witnessed the city history of last century. Here are some of them which definitely might draw your attention.
7, Proskurivska Street is the red brick building which was built in 1903-1905. Its history is peculiarly connected with development of commercial business in the town. The first and the best grocer’s shop of Proskuriv found location under its roof. This building belonged to the merchant family of Zhuravlyovs. The shop had a large range of different groceries and provisions which could be ordered, delivered home, purchased on credit as well as offered for tasting. That was a really nice surprise to everyone of provincial Proskuriv.
13, Proskurivska Street is the building of “Ukrtelecom” communication services which by right could be considered as the best one looking building of Khmelnytksyi city. Ludvig Derevoyed, a nobleman and an owner of the best chemist’s shop had constructed this building. There had been a wine-cellar “Rein wine-cellar” in the basement. The ground floor was occupied by the chemist’s shop and the first and second ones were provided for tenants.
15, Proskurivska Street was occupied by restaurant called “Slon” (Elephant) which thanks to its cuisine, always had a lot of visitors. The band of blind musicians playing at night was of great respect as well. The first floor was occupied by hotel rooms. Later this floor was reconstructed to “Hotel No.1”. Film director Oleksander Dovzhenko and his camera people who were shooting some episodes to the movie “Shchors” were accommodated in this hotel. The hotel stopped its existence in 1967 but “Slon”, being renamed many times, retained its specialization. Once it was called “Tsentralnyi”, then “Druzhba”. A few times it hosted ordinary dining-room, shortly after that, it was “Kristal” cafe and “Edem” bar.
18, Proskurivska Street. In 1910 the movie house “Modern” was placed here right after having the building completed, which previously had been for some time in the building of merchant Y. Gorenstein. Actually, when “Modern” movie house moved to Oleksandrivska Street it was considered as the best one in Proskuriv. Nowadays the children music school found its place here. In 1824 this area, which had been outskirts at that time were allotted to “large fairground”. The commerce facilities were built along the perimeter of the fairground which was named as “Khlibna” (abundant in bread) and some area was left for sale from carts. The area turned to be the best place for auctions and trade fairs, but as time went by and the town grew in size, the fairground became too small, therefore the main place for trade was moved to the vacant lot close by railroad station and “Khlibna” fairground was assigned to 46-Dniprovskyi infantry regiment. The commerce facilities were rebuilt into military quarters and fairground was used as a parade-ground. Young second lieutenant and future well-known writer Oleksander Kuprin had to march on this parade-ground. He had served in Dniprovskyi infantry regiment for four years, since 1890 till 1894. In 1893 the regiment moved to the new constructed quarters on the other side of the rail road. On the former “Khlibna” square was laid the foundation of the city garden. For that the part of shops were taken down, the paths marked, new trees planted, fencing built. All works with putting down in order were completed in 1902. During the Soviet times the garden was renamed into Kotsyubynskyi Recreation Park. It 1970th the park had been entirely reconstructed. It was cleared from unnecessary old buildings what practically gave the opportunity to plant new types of trees and bushes, create landscape compositions, build fountains and playground for children. T. Shevchenko monument was set up in the park in 1992. The year of 2001 the park got status of architectural landscape monument.
40, Proskurivska Street. Shevchenko Movie Theater is the largest one in the city. The construction of the theater had been completed in 1940 and it was named after the legendary pilot V.Chkalov. It is solid building with spacious foyer, library, music-band hall, refreshment rooms, and modern for that time equipment- all the best for visitors. The form of the movie house supplemented the general view of the main square of that time. There was Lenin monument in the middle of the square. Opposite the movie theater there was the city hall building (today military registration and enlistment office) and next to it is acting culture house. Backside of the movie theater is occupied by central recreation park. Recently the movie theater has been reequipped and since 1992 it has the name of Taras Shevchenko.
43, Proskurivska Street. The Culture house. In 1892 the first private theater owned by Schilman was established. It was located in wooden structure in Kamyanetska Street. The theater itself hadn’t had troupe and practically the stage was provided to touring actors. Having been supported by the city power he constructed the new building for the theater in Oleksandrivska Street. Next to the theater the hotel for touring actors was built also and cosy “Teatralnyi restaurant”. Cause of all this the theatrical life enlivened: the troupes from Kyiv, Odesa, Peterburg used to come here. In times of civil war Proskuriv happened to be in the middle of historical events, the theater was used for meetings by UPR (Ukrainian People’s Republic) which came three times during 1919-1920. The theater remembers speeches made by chief ataman S. Petlyura, government representatives S. Ostapenko, B. Matros, I. Mazepa and others. The theatrical performances took place as well during the civil war. Lviv Theater gave performances as a support to UPR in August 1919. Last time, Kateryna Rubchakova, Ukrainian famous opera singer happened to appear on stage of Proskuriv Theater. Soon after this on the 22nd of 1919 the talented actor died of typhus. In 1920 the theater was nationalized and Workers’ and Peasants’ mobile theatrical troupe staged here. Since 1925 it has been Ukrainian dramatic theater. In March 1941 Proskuriv became provincial city and it was decided to move over here the regional Petrovskyi Theater from Kamyanets-Podilskyi. The beginning of Great Patriotic War cause that the theater could be moved here only in November 1944. In 1960 the new structure of the theater had been laid at the corner of Kamyanetska Street (Frunze street at that time) and Gagarin street, what caused that the former building of the theater in Proskurivska, 43 was given to the city Culture house.
46, Proskurivska Street Solomon Maranz, another merchant and the richest resident of Proskuriv built this house in 1880. He was the person who used to sell sugar and kerosene and had a lot of property as steam-mill and sugar refinery. During the 20th century the house suffered numerous reconstructions. From the first days of the Soviet regime different Soviet and military stayed here. The time of 1930s brought ill fame to this house. That was the time when during Stalins’ rule thousand of innocent people had been subjected to mass repressions in the basements of this building. It became other image with the post-war times when it was used as Pioneers House. Since 1989 it has been puppet-show.
47, Proskurivska Street This building was built by other merchant David Nirenberg for South-Russian bank department – one of the leading banks of Russian Empire. This bank was renamed into “United Bank” in 1908. One section of the building was constructed for “Venice” hotel. At Soviet times the building was transferred to the State institutions: 1950s - the provincial executive committee, 1960s – city committee of the party, 1970s- editorial office of “Radyanske Podillya” and “Korchaginets” newspapers. Since 1986 it has been the art regional museum.
57, Proskurivska Street This building was constructed in 1939 as Garrison House of Red Army. In May 1940, here were located field headquarters of South Front under the command of G. Zhukov which had an order to liberate “North Bukovyna and Bessarabia from Roumanian occupation” and annexation to the territory of the USSR. At the time when administrative center to Proskuriv, on March, 1941 the regional party and YCL committee found location here. End of June at the beginning of July, 1941, couple of days after the Great Patriotic War has broken out, the house was occupied by South-Western Front under the command of M.Kyrponis. After liberation of the city in March, 1944, the regional party committee resumed its operation. At the end of 1950’s the building was transferred to military command as Officers’ Garrison Culture House. From 2005 this building has been rendered to the University for Management and Law.
83, Proskurivska Street This two-storey building of 1906 had been through centuries used by children. It was built for needs of college. Based on it the Ukrainian comprehensive school was established. Firstly it had number 7 then number 3. During occupation of the city by German army it was used as a recruiting centre to send Proskuriv inhabitants to work in Germany. Since January, 1942, 1300 people had been taken out. In 1970, the comprehensive school was moved over to the other place and this building was rendered to Regional Young Technician Centre.
It is significant to tell about the monuments in this street. First one is is Bogdan Khmelnytskyi monument (1955) on the Railway station square, the second one is the “Angel of Sorrow” by sculptors Mykola and Bogdan Mazur, immortalizing victims of repressions and the third one is Memorial Complex “Eternal Flame” where 17 warrior-liberators of the city were buried. Two of them are Soviet Union Heroes – Lev Shestakov and Valentyn Yelkin.
It is located in the central part of the city. This street was laid according to above said city planning of 1824 and its first name was – Dvoryanska (the street of the nobility). Along this street the land was allotted here for prosperous people of the city (predominantly to nobles) to build the houses. In 1921 Dvoryanska Street was renamed into Y.Ostapovych – local revolutionary figure. Later on the street got the name of S. Kirov – Soviet party figure and statesman. In 1991 the street was given the name of Volodymyr Svyatoslavovych – great Kiev prince who had introduced and adopted Christianity as State religion. To-day some mansions of the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries remained intact – among them houses under the numbers 56, 63 and 103. The most interesting of them is the house of diocesan - vicar. It is one-storey brick mansion with large round windows – Volodymyrska, 56. At the beginning of the 20th century here was Diocesan Proskuriv-Letychiv vicar office. Vicar Valerian (Vasyl Rudych) led eparchy, he was known ecclesiastical figure in Podillya province. He was arrested in 1925 by punitive officials and sent to Middle Asia. After series of imprisonments and exiles he was executed by shooting in 1937. Nowadays Eparchy of Khmelnytskyi works concerning canonization of the bishop Valerian. Almost at the end of the street, there is Saint Patronage Cathedral. Though the Cathedral was consecrated in 1992, it dates back to the middle of the 19th century. On this place there had been Christian cemetery and small Patronizing cemetery church. At the end of 1870’s cemetery came to be within the city area and was closed. But the church itself remained operating,and at the Soviet time, when the Blessed Virgin Cathedral had been closed, was the only one functioning. The pressure of 1964 made this only light of Orthodoxy be closed, and only at the end of 1980’s the new Saint Patronage Cathedral was completed for services.
It is the centre of the city. In 19th century it was an integral part of Boulevard (in 1880 it had been called Starobulvarna Street- “Old Boulevard Street”, which was laid in compliance with the same city plan of 1824. In 1926, Starobulvarna Street had been divided into three ones: Medvedivskyi alleyway or bystreet (Chervonoarmiyska Street), Dzerzhynskyi Street, (Svobody Street), and the third one stayed Starobulvarna till 1961. In 1961, in honor of the first cosmonaut of the world, it was renamed into Gagarin Street.
3, Gagarin Street there is City Hall. It occupies the building of the former Oleksiyevskyi real college, which was opened in 1904, and in honor of throne successor Prince Oleksiy was named therefore. The college had 6-months course of education and provided “real” (from Latin “realis” – real) secondary education with prevailing technical approach. There were 300 students. Mykola Trublayini, future writer, author of “Lakhtar”, “Shkhuna” (Schooner) and “Columb”, was among the students of last graduation. From the first days of Soviet Power, the “real” college had ended its existence. Later on there was a school, afterward the party and YCL institutions occupied this building. Since 1986 we have City Hall here.
4, Gagarin Street is the Registry Office. It is one of the best looking old buildings of the city. It was built in 1903 and belonged to a doctor of Proskuriv. From the beginning of the First World War, the house was occupied by military department, on July 19, 1914 the 8th army headquarters of South-Western Front under command of General Oleksiy Brusylov was accommodated here. From 1921 the mansion was under the Red Cossacks’ division. After the Great Patriotic War it was used as apartment house for higher party officials, than the city children’s hospital was located here. The Registry Office has been since 2001.
The city centre has another street called Grushevskyi Street. As other streets of the city, it was laid according to the city planning of 1824. Its first name was Komertsiyna (Commercial Street). The land here was also allotted for affluent citizens of the city (preferably for industrialists and merchants). In 1921 this street received a name of Rosa Luxemburg – outstanding figure of the international communist movement. In 1991 it was renamed into Grushevsky Street – historian, political figure, who made an important contribution to science. There are some mansions endured from the past on this street, they are the followings No.68, the mansion of 1905, today it is a regional literature museum, No.84 was the property of industrialist Shilman, No.90 – countess Binetska’s mansion, No.95 – one of the most beautiful mansions. Three-storey building in Grushevskyi Street, 85 is of special attention, it is known among the old residents as “Actors’ House”, which was built in 1930 for cultural and educational institutions. The well-know composer, conductor, one of the first honored actors on Republic, Mykola Radziyevskyi lived here 1946-1965.
Podilska Street streches from lowland of Ploska river (Shestakova Street) to the territory of the furniture house (Starokonsktyantynivskre Shosse). The close by part of the street was marked in the plan of 1824. The second part, from Svobody Street, was laid after 1888. First name of the street was Kupetska Street (Merchant Street). In 1921 the street got name of Karl Marx. The name of Podilska Street was given in 1991. 39, Podilska Street is considered the best construction on this street, it was a fire-brigade house (so called fire-tower). It was erected in 1954. At present it is a movie theater “Planeta” (Planet) and stays one of architectural symbols of the regional center. On the fire-tower was installed a musical clock in 2001.
Prymakova Street is the central part of a town, and it starts at Ploska River (Entrance to Central Park of Culture and Recreation) till Grushevskyi Street. Partially is got its form already in 16th century. What we have today is the implementation of city planning from 1824. Its first name was “Mala Buz’ka” (Small Street along South Bug River). The street starts at private houses area of the Old city, where predominantly Polish people lived. In the second half of 17th century the St. Anna Cathedral replaced Ploskyriv Castle as it had fallen into decay and was dismantled. Firstly, the Cathedral was small wooden structure. In 1920, it was replaced by the new brick structure. At the beginning of the 20th century the Cathedral was rebuilt in Baroque taste, nevertheless in 1936 the Soviet Rule decided to destroy St. Anna Cathedral. Nowadays, not far from the place where Cathedral had been, is school No.1. The other direction of the street, behind the intersection with Kamyanetska Street, was populated by Jewish residents. Among buildings of that area the Market Square was clearly distinguished, therefore this area was called as “Old Market”.
Proskurivske Pidpillya Street goes straight through the central part of the city towards “Blyzhni Grechany”(Neighbouring Grechany district). This street, as many others, was laid according to the city planning of 1824 as well. First name was “Aptekarska” (Chemist’s) Street as Chemist’s shop of those days was built here by noble L.Derevoyed. At the beginning of the 20th century the street was extended west through bridge embankments towards suburban village Grechany. In 1921, the street was renamed into G.Kotovskyi Street. Hitherto some houses of that time remained - house 34, which belonged to L.Derevoyed. At the beginning of the 20th century this house was given for rent to (“Provincial Convention of Justice of the Peace”). In 2000, the street was renamed into Proskurivske Pidpillya Street (Proskuriv Underground Organization) in honor of Proskuriv antifascist-underground organization.
Soborna (Cathedral) Street
This street runs through the city center - from Prybuzka St. to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square). This street belonged to the same city planning of 1824. The Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin at Maidan Nezalezhnosti caused the first name of the street. In 1921, the street got the name of Karl Liebknecht. The year of 1991 brought back its historical name. The Cathedral stands at the beginning of the street. There are historical records saying that on this very place there had been small wooden church already in 1670 which during the city fire of 1822 came to ashes. The construction of a new Cathedral covered the period of 2 years, 1835-37. Among the Cathedral’s relics it had been the Icon of the Blessed Virgin, which during the fire was saved by a miracle. This Icon considered to be miracle-working, and was revered by Proskuriv citizens. Unfortunately, neither miracle-working icon nor other relics of the Cathedral remained to the present time. They had vanished in 1930’s, the time when the church was trampled by Soviet Power and closed. Many long years the Cathedral was used as storage facilities, that as archive. And only in 1989, the Cathedral, having been renovated, opened its doors for divine service. This Cathedral is the oldest structure of the city.
The street of the city center dates from 1824. A construction of the Province Treasury in 1890’s caused the first name of the street: “Millionna” (Millionth), which, as had been said by Proskuriv inhabitants: ”Treasury commanded millions”. The year of 1921 had given to the street new name of revolutionary figure Samusyak. In 1940, during celebration of 70’s anniversary of V.Ulyanov’s (Lenin) birthday, this street was named Lenin Street. In 1985, the officials decided that Lenin’s name would be given to the central street of the city, and so “Millionna Street” was renamed to “Zhovtneva Street (in honor of October Revolution of 1917). The year of 1991 and the location of Petrovskyi Theater caused its name – Teatralna Street. The history of the theater itself is worth being described. Regional Petrovskyi Drama Theatre was founded in 1931 in Novocherkask city (Rostov region/province, Russia) as Urainian Theatre of North-Caucasus area. In 1933, it moved to Ukraine, Vinnytsa region, where it was granted regional status. In summer, 1938, the theatre moved to Kamyanets-Podilskyi- - new formed administrative regional centre. During the Great Patriotic War, the theatre was evacuated to the home front, where it performed at the enterprises, military units and hospitals. When Ukraine was liberated, the theatre came back to Podillya, and not to Kamyanets-Podilskyi but to Proskuriv. Till 1960’s, the theatre had been located in the building of the present “Culture House”, than in Philharmonic Society till 1982, and since 1982 it has been in its new structure. Among two old building there are two very noticeable. First one was built in 1914 on request of city bank (17, Teatralna Street). With the beginning of the First World War, the house was rendered to military department. For three years, 1917-1920, the Zaporizhzhya Corps of Ukrainian People’s Movement under the command of colonel Petro Bolbochan. For certain time, the house was used as general post-office, than telephone station. Since 2006 it has been the library of Khmelnitsky University of Management and Law. Second building resembling small palace is on Teatralna, 46. It was also built at the beginning of the 20th century for Proskuriv Telegraph-post office. Today it is regional military registration and enlistment office. In September, 2002, on Teatralna Street, the memorial in honor of Perished soldiers in Afghan and other local wars. Khmelnitsky sculptors Mykola and Bogdan Mazur are authors of this original composition.
Ivan Franko Street runs through the central part of the city (from Podilska Street) till the 1st cantonment of Dubove district. First part of the street appeared in the middle of the 19th century, and it ran till railroad crossing was named Tsyganska (Gipsy) Street. The street took final shape according to the city plan of 1888 and was renamed into Novobulvarna (New Boulevard) Street. The name of local revolutionary Rechko was given to the street in 1928. Since 1946, the street has present name of Ivan Franko – poet and public figure. Having been laid out in 1920’s on the swampy backwater Ivan Franko Recreation Park is considered the street’s “calling card”. It was intended to be an amusement and recreation park with numerous sport grounds, open-air movie theatre, dancing hall. The main alley was decorated with sculptures of famous writers. At present time, after couple of reconstruction works, the park remains to be recreation center. In 2007, the sport grounds for children were equipped and Ivan Franko monument was mounted here. Across the part there is a city baths No.1 constructed in 1929. It has been first and the largest enterprise of municipal economy of that time. The baths combined garrison and civil baths, mechanical laundry and disinfection section. Another outstanding structure on this street is Saint George Church. The temple was constructed in 1898 for the 46th Dniprovskyi regiment. During the Soviet time, the temple had been closed. The divine service recommenced in 1996.
Shevchenko Street is in the central part of the city, it runs from Svobody Street till Trudova Street (railway station). This street was built in accordance with city planning of 1888, its first name was Velyka Voksalna (Large Railway Station) Street. It was renamed Shevchenko Street in 1919. It looked like boulevard at that time. In 1939, close to intersection with Starokonstantyniv Shosse, the Shevchenko Monument was mounted but the monument and green plantations were taken away in 1981. There are a few old buildings remained: 1, Shevchenko Street was Jewish college at the beginning of the 20th century. 5, Shevchenko Street was private residence of 1907, 69, Shevhenko Street was administrative building of alcohol purifying storehouse of the Excise in 1905. At present time it is confectionary plant. In Shevchenko Street, 3 P.Vitanov lived during Great Patriotic War. In this house the meetings of Proskuriv underground organization were held in 1942-1943. In 1995, the museum of Proskuriv Underground Organization was established. 46, Shevchenko Street is occupied by National Academy of State Frontiers named after Khmelnytskyi. The old quarters of 1936, built on demand of tank brigade, still stay on the territory of the Academy. From 1944 till 1958, it was the tank military school. In 1958 the military school was sent to the Far East, and the cantonment was transferred to the 17th guard of motor-shooting division. In 1970, the division was temporarily transferred to Hungary and the Khmelnytskyi high school for artillery command was founded there. In 1992, on the basis of this high school the Institute of State Frontiers has been established, which in 1995 was granted status of Academy.
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